2.1. Software Architecture

The R2D app is one of the SimCenter’s computational applications, which are scientific workflow systems that executes a sequence of computational tasks specialized for natural hazard engineering (NHE) problems. In contrast to more general-purpose scientific workflow systems (such as Taverna, Kepler, and Pegasus), SimCenter workflow systems include the following features:

  • Access to high-performance computing resources, available on the cloud through DesignSafe, to enable parallel workflows for non-trivial large-scale NHE problems;

  • Uncertainty quantification capabilities using Dakota, which allows users to introduce input uncertainties that are propagated through the workflow with random variables;

  • Streamlined interfaces between existing software applications and datasets that are widely used by the NHE community, such as OpenFOAM, OpenSees, ADCIRC, and PEER Strong Ground Motion Databases. To do this, the SimCenter develops pre- and post-processors for these existing applications and utilizes web technologies for accessing online services;

  • Additional custom software applications produced by the SimCenter. Among these are applications that automate the acquisition of building inventory data (BRAILS), applications that simulate hazard events and generate corresponding input files for passing through the workflow system (RegionalEvent Applications), applications for damage and loss assessment (pelicun), and more.

  • Modular framework that allows developers to incorporate their own software applications as components to the workflow system, so long as it meets the input-output structure at component interfaces.

../../../../_images/SimCenterFramework.png

Fig. 2.1.5 SimCenter Software Framework

A Level 1 diagram showing the system context for the SimCenter applications, i.e., how it fits in the world, is shown in Fig. 2.1.6. It shows SimCenter applications (EE-UQ, WE-UQ, HydroUQ, PBE, R2D) as a box in the center surrounded by the user and the user’s systems. The SimCenter applications allow a user to create and run scientific workflow applications; the data for the applications may be obtained from the web or DataDepot. The workflow applications are run on either the local desktop or on some HPC at DesignSafe.

../../../../_images/context.png

Fig. 2.1.6 System context diagram for SimCenter applications.

Given how SimCenter applications fit in with the environment, a level 2 diagram demonstrates how the SimCenter applications are broken into high-level components. The SimCenter applications are, as shown in Fig. 2.1.7, split into two components: A front-end UI and a back-end application that runs the workflow. The front-end applications are desktop applications written using the cross-platform Qt framework. The back end is an application that processes the input from the front end, which comes in the form of a JSON file, creates a workflow, and runs it. The workflow applications, written in Python, C, or C++, utilize existing applications where possible and run on either the local desktop machine or on an HPC utilizing resources made available to the NHE community through DesignSafe.

../../../../_images/container.png

Fig. 2.1.7 System container diagram for SimCenter applications.

Two level 3 diagrams are now presented, which break up the two containers into the major building blocks or components in C4 terminology. In Fig. 2.1.8, the component diagram for the front-end UI is presented. It outlines the interaction between the user and the individual graphical elements (widgets) of the UI. Given the jigsaw puzzle analogy, the user selects which piece of the jigsaw puzzle they are working on in the component selection widget. The widget for the jigsaw piece will then be displayed on the desktop. The user for each jigsaw piece then selects which application to run for that piece. For the chosen application, they provide the inputs. When the inputs are all provided, the user can choose to run the simulations locally or remotely. For jobs that run remotely, the user can download and review previously run simulations. As seen, the widgets may subsequently interact with web services through HTTPS requests or with DesignSafe utilizing TAPIS Restful API through the RemoteService container.

../../../../_images/componentFront.png

Fig. 2.1.8 Component diagram for front-end UI.

The component diagram for the back-end application shown in Fig. 2.1.9, shows that the back-end comprises several component applications. The application femUQ.py is the application that parses the input from the front end, sets up the workflow by creating a workflow_driver script and then launches the UQ engine. The choice of UQ Engine and applications to run in the workflow is determined from the data passed from the UI and information contained in a file, WorkflowApplication.json. The WorkflowApplication.json file is a file that maps the applications specified in the output from the UI with a specific application contained on the users’ local machine or at the remote HPC resource, as such it allows the researchers to modify the applications that may be run in the workflow w/o the need to recompile the application. Once the workflow_driver file is created, control is passed to a UQ engine, which repeatedly runs the workflow_driver to generate the results. In running the workflow, some of the applications will invoke applications not developed to meet the API. For such applications, pre- and post-processors are provided. The figure shows the back-end application running locally or remotely on an HPC at DesignSafe.

../../../../_images/componentBack.png

Fig. 2.1.9 Component diagram for Backend Application.

Note

femUQ.py is the back-end application for the EE-UQ, WE-UQ, Hydro-UQ, and PBE applications. For R2D, the back-end application is R2D_Workflow.py.

The interaction between the front-end and the back-end is best understood by looking at the sequence of events when the user presses the Run button. As shown in the figure below, the UI application will first perform several steps:

  1. It will create a temporary directory in the Documents folder named tmp.SimCenter, and inside tmp.SimCenter will create another directory templatedir.

  2. It will then run through all the currently selected widgets and invoke the copyFiles() method, telling these widgets to copy all files needed during the workflow to the templatedir directory.

  3. It will then create a JSON file and will run through the currently selected widgets and on each invokes the methods outputToJSON() and outputAppDataToJSON, these telling the application to augment the JSON file with the inputs the user has provided in the widget and also the name of the widget.

  4. The UI will start the back-end application and spin until the back-end application returns with a completion signal.

Now that the UI has been handed over to the back-end application, the back-end application will perform the following:

  1. Open the output file from the UI and parse it to obtain the name of the application to run and the arguments to run the application with. Open up another file, the WorkflowApplications.json file, contained with the application to determine, given the application name, the full path to the executable to be invoked. It will create in templatedir a file named workflow_driver. When run by the UQ engine, this file is a script file that will generate a file named results.out. results.out when the workflow_driver script has completed will contain a single line of space-separated values, one value for each EDP.

  2. It will invoke each application with supplied arguments and an additional command-line argument, --getRV, to inform the application to process the input file and create any additional random variables and input files needed before the workflow runs.

  3. It will then launch the UQengine. The UQengine is typically a pre- and post-processor to an existing UQ engine.

  4. The pre-processor takes the JSON input file and creates an input file needed by the actual UQ engine.

  5. The pre-processor will launch the UQ application. This application will typically run the workflow_driver many times, passing as input to the workflow a file \params and obtaining output from the workflow_driver a file results.out.

  6. When done, the engine will output its results.

  7. The UQengine will notify the UQpreprocessor that it is done.

  8. The UQpreprocessor will notify the femUQ application that it is done.

  9. The femUQ application will notify the UI that it is done.

  10. The UI will read the results and present them to the user.

../../../../_images/sequenceLocal.png

Fig. 2.1.10 Sequence diagram showing what happens when a Workflow runs Locally

That is for the case where the computations are performed on the local computer. When the computations are performed remotely, the steps are different. The first 8 steps are the same. But now, the UQwrapper will not start the UQ engine. Instead, control is returned to the UI. The UI will, as shown in the following: (11) Compress the temporary folder. (12) Send the compressed folder to the remote HPC, shown in Fig. 2.1.11. (13) Start an application to perform the computations. All the remote data transfer and application invocation is down through a cloud service. The TACC tapis interface is used to provide SimCenter users with access to the TACC HPC resources through the DesignSafe portal.

../../../../_images/sequenceRemote.png

Fig. 2.1.11 Sequence diagram showing what happens when a Workflow runs Remotely

2.1.1. R2D Workflows

This section is specific to implementations of R2D for quantifying regional risk and resilience to natural hazards.

2.1.1.1. Choosing Component Applications

A user’s choice of component applications for R2D depends on the hazard type, available data, and user preferences. All currently supported component applications and possible workflows are summarized in figWorkflowDiagram.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram.png

Workflow 1 (EQ, HU, W): This workflow is appropriate for implementations where only intensity measures (IM) of earthquake, hurricane, or wind hazards are known. IM-based fragility functions must be used in the DL application, as no structural response is simulated. The required inputs are shown in the first orange panel.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram_1.png

Workflow 2 (EQ): This workflow is appropriate for implementations where ground motion records are loaded on an auto-generated multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) model, which is simulated in OpenSees. The required inputs are shown in the first orange panel.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram_2.png

Workflow 3 (EQ): This workflow is appropriate for implementations where ground motion records are loaded on a user-created structural model in OpenSees. The OpenSees model script must be included as an additional input.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram_3.png

Workflow 4 (EQ): This workflow is appropriate for implementations where ground motion records are loaded on a user-created structural model in OpenSeesPy. The OpenSeesPy model script must be included as an additional input.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram_4.png

Workflow 5 (EQ, HU, W): This workflow is appropriate for implementations where the response is simulated on a user-created structural model in OpenSeesPy, and the user defines custom types and locations of EDPs to record on the model. The OpenSeesPy model script and the EDP specifications file must be included as additional inputs.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram_5.png

Workflow 6 (W): This workflow is appropriate for implementations where wind loads are applied to an auto-generated multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) model, which is simulated in OpenSees. The required inputs are shown in the first orange panel.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram_6.png

Workflow 7 (W): This workflow is appropriate for implementations where wind loads are applied to a user-created structural model in OpenSees. The OpenSees model script must be included as an additional input.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram_7.png

Workflow 8 (W): This workflow is appropriate for implementations where wind loads are applied to a user-created structural model in OpenSeesPy. The OpenSeesPy model script must be included as an additional input.

../../../../_images/workflow_diagram_8.png